Ritual and Medical Circumcision among Filipino boys: Evidence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

Academic paper from 2000 showing link between PTSD and MGM …

Some 1,577 boys satisfied the prescribed criteria (1,072 boys were circumcised under medical procedures; 505 boys were subjected to ritual circumcision) and were followed-up to ascertain whether the perceived trauma from genital cutting developed into symptoms of PTSD. Almost 70% of boys subjected to ritual circumcision and 51% of those subjected to medical circumcision fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD.

Click for full abstract: Ritual and Medical Circumcision among Filipino boys: Evidence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

Surprising Study Finds That Babies Feel Pain Like Adults

Circumcision and Sexual Function Difficulties

In Philippines: 300 School Boys Undergo Horrific Mass Circumcision

A rite of passage … Barbaric from a European view point …

DailyMail “gathered that the boys aged nine and upwards are circumcised as part of a traditional rite of passage in to adulthood.

Often the circumcision or ‘tuli’ as it is known in the Philippines takes place in free mass events to promote safe practice. The ritual is an age-old custom, wherein the foreskin of the penis is cut off for non-medical reasons.

As part of the ritual, the boys are encouraged to wear loose skirts to facilitate circumcision and the swelling that follows the ritual…”

Click for full article: In Philippines: 300 School Boys Undergo Horrific Mass Circumcision

The Islamic Monthly: “A Tiny Cut”: Female Circumcision in South East Asia

Authentic discussion of HGM in Malaysia … Note how legitimate FGM has become in Malaysia  – similar to MGM (Male Circumcision) in the USA …

“I am a Muslim of Malay ethnicity, who was born in Singapore, where Malays are an ethnic and religious minority today, and lived there until I was 24 years old. The Malays, of whom 99 percent are Muslim, are the indigenous people of Singapore and the Malay archipelago. Until the arrival of the British colonizers in the early nineteenth century, this area (which covers what is south Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and south  Philippines today) shared many cultural and linguistic similarities.

When I was about six years old and attending a kenduri, or ritual feast, for two male cousins who had just been circumcised, I whispered to my mother, “Are girls circumcised too?” Growing up in Singapore in the 1990s, boys were commonly circumcised before puberty (around eight or nine) – making it seem like a rite of passage into adulthood. The six year-old me observed the fuss and attention they got: they were not allowed to eat certain foods, they could only bear to wear a kain sarong for up to two weeks due to the pain, and had to be fanned at night to keep the wounds dry. These ritual feasts to celebrate a boy’s circumcision are less common today, partly due to the increasing use of doctors to carry out circumcision, and usually on infants a few weeks old.

My mother explained to me girls were indeed circumcised, and that sunat perempuan (Malay for ‘female’ sunnah, or ‘tradition’) involved “a tiny cut”, without giving any more details. At that age, it didn’t occur to me to ask if any women I knew had been cut, because there were never any ritual feasts. Later, I would discover that this female genital cutting, as it happened historically and today, has undergone various changes and yet, many aspects of this ritual remained the same…

… The overwhelming majority of Muslims in Southeast Asia follow the Shafii school of law, which declares FGC as wajib, or obligatory. In contrast, the other three Sunni schools, together with the Shia schools, consider FGC a sunnah or a recommended act. Just like male circumcision, there is no mention of it in the Quran. The form of FGC taking place in Southeast Asia seems to follow this general and gender-neutral rule from al-Nawawi to remove the prepuce at a young age, but also at an older age if it causes no ‘harm’.[xvi] This ruling is found in his chapter on taharah or purity, indicating that the concern was for the cleanliness of the genitals, especially the area under the prepuce, and consequent validity of acts of worship. Indeed, about half of the reasons mentioned above by midwives and parents for the practice reflects a concern for hygiene.

With regards to hadith, or Prophetic sayings, there is much debate on which are considered authentic, and therefore authoritative enough to be taken as a source of law. The most commonly-cited hadith(here) mentioning circumcision has been used to both promote and discourage FGC. Other hadith that mention circumcised parts (here and here) are also making a larger point about purifying one’s body after sexual intercourse, but not necessarily ordaining circumcision. Other hadith whose authenticity cannot be confirmed variously urge to not “cut deeply”, “abuse”, “cut into”, or “exceed the limit”, but instead to “trim”, “reduce the size of the clitoris”, or to “cut off only the foreskin”.

In short, there is no fully authentic text in which the Prophet Mohammad required or recommended the circumcision of women any more than the circumcision of men. There may have been FGC in the Prophet’s society, but there was no equivocal ban on it. This type of minimal FGC as practised in Southeast Asia has also been identified as the ‘mild’ type of cutting found in early Islamic societies, which was aimed to protect women’s “dignity and well-being” or make her “honourable”. Thus, it is dangerously framed as the ‘real’ or ‘most Islamic’ FGC. [xvii]

However, most Muslims do not make a direct link between their everyday actions and textual evidence, learning instead from our immediate forefathers the rituals, symbols, and acts that make us Muslim (or not). For example, we pray by first imitating movements from our parents or other authority figures in our lives and often only learn the significance of the words and movements when we are older. Likewise, while FGC may have started in Southeast Asia as an “Arab custom”, today it is a religious norm that parents seek for their children, because everyone else in the family or in the village has done it, for generations…”

 

Click for full article: The Islamic Monthly: “A Tiny Cut”: Female Circumcision in South East Asia

Indonesia: Female circumcision not mutilation: Jakarta

HGM (Human Genital Mutilation) at its most mild. Indonesia’s Muslim culture see’s FGM (Female Circumcision) as desirable – not as a harmful thing at all. It is seen as a way of limiting the libido… This form of HGM is one of the least invasive – pin prick to the clitoral hood (female foreskin). Similar to a method of MGM that just involves drawing a drop of blood from the male foreskin.

Thrashing wildly, 5-year-old Reta wails as she is hoisted onto a bed during a circumcision ceremony in a school hall-turned-clinic on Indonesia’s island of Java. “No, no, no,” she cries, punching and kicking as her mother cups her tear-soaked face to soothe her.

Doctors cheer encouragingly. One of them gently swipes the girl’s genital area with antiseptic and then swiftly pricks the hood of her clitoris with a fresh sewing needle, drawing no blood. The ordeal is over in seconds.

Doctors say the procedure will have no effect on the girl, her sexual pleasure in later life or ability to bear a child.

“I’m happy. My daughter is now clean,” her mother Yuli, a 27-year-old seamstress who goes by one name, said at a mass circumcision of 120 girls at the Assalaam Foundation’s Islamic school in the city of Bandung.

She believes the ritual will nevertheless have an effect.

“Many girls are getting pregnant out of wedlock these days,” she noted. “Circumcision hopefully will prevent my daughter from becoming oversexed, and will make her less amorous when she grows up.”

Click for full article, Japan Times: Female circumcision not mutilation: Jakarta

GA mixed
No cutting without informed consent.

Guardian 2012: 248 girls circumcised in one day by Midwives

The popularity of female circumcision (FGM) is increasing in Indonesia…

It is well established that female genital mutilation (FGM) is not required in Muslim law. It is an ancient cultural practice that existed before Islam, Christianity and Judaism. It is also agreed across large swathes of the world that it is barbaric.

Guardian 2012: 248 girls circumcised in one day by Midwives

“… followers of Islam – “have at times practised female circumcision and consider their practices sanctioned, or at least not prohibited, by God.” Despite the fact that FGM pre dates the birth of Islam and is not mandated by religious scriptures, the belief that it is a religious requirement contributes to the continuation of the practice in a number of settings. – UNICEF, 2013”

Wikipedia: Religious views on female genital mutilation

GA mixed

No cutting without informed consent.

UNICEF Estimate Of Female Genital Mutilation Up By 70 Million

“Forget about the conventional wisdom that female genital mutilation, or FGM, rarely takes place outside of Africa and the Middle East. Recalibrate that to 30 countries on several continents …”

UNICEF Estimate Of Female Genital Mutilation Up By 70 Million

GA mixed