American academic paper which raises all the main issues. Things are beginning to change in the USA. I hope to see all children, boys,girls, and intersex, protected from genital mutilation. The law and medical ethics should be applied without gender bias. If society can override the wishes of irrational religious people concerning gay marriage – then secular law should protect all children from religious blood rites. It is a sad condemnation of western society that the feelings of adults are addressed before the harm to children. Religion has no right to demand genital mutilation of boys – and everyone in society needs to wake up to this. People who promote this should be treated like people who promote FGM. Equality for boys.